Monday, 29 August 2016

De unde provin numele zilelor în engleza ?

De  unde provin numele zilelor în englezĂ ?

Considerată prima în ordinea zilelor săptămânii, această zi corespunde cu ziua soarelui la păgâni şi chiar şi-a mai păstrat acest nume până azi la germani (Sonntag) şi englezi (Sunday), care, traduse în limba română, înseamnă ziua soarelui.
 Denumirile anglo-saxone, Monday în engleză, Montag in germana si Maandag în olandeză vin de la acelaşi astru având originile in Moon Day respectiv vechiul cuvânt monandaeg – ziua lunii.
 Lunea era bine să începi orice activitate casnică  pentru că aduce noroc. 
Tuesday-ul englezesc, Tirsdag-ul danez şi Tisdag-ul suedez vin de la zeul scandinav Tyr, zeul nordic al războiului,Tyr. De obicei, Marţea este o zi ideală pentru conflicte şi războaie. În câteva zone se consideră o zi rea, fără noroc, nepotrivită pentru a începe activităţi legate de casă sau pământ
Englezescul Wednesday vine de la zeul Odin (Wodan), ca şi olandezul Woensdag. Este ziua comerţului şi a călătoriilor.
Thursday din limba engleză provine de la
numele zeului nordic al fulgerelor şi tunetelor,Thor . Ca şi denumirea Torsdag din limbile scandinave. Această zi aduce încredere în oameni, uşurează comunicarea şi relaţiile. Este de asemenea o zi foarte bună pentru evidenţiat talentul, cunoştinţele şi experienţa. 
În engleză vine de la zeiţa scandinavă Frigg. În vechile limbi germanice numele zilei era Frigedag, actualmente Freitag în germană şi Vrijdag în olandeză. Această zi aduce încredere în oameni, uşurează comunicarea şi relaţiile.

În limbile anglo-saxone denumirea era Sater daeg, limbile moderne au preluat-o ca Saturday in engleză, Friday-Frigg,soţia lui Odin, zeiţa cerului şi a mariajului Samstag in germana si Zaterdag în olandeză. În Scandinavia, Lördag în Suedia, Lørdag în daneză şi norvegiană, traducerea înseamnă “ziua spălatului”. Însă pentru oamenii zilelor de azi,este o zi de odihnă, dar şi de distracţie. Pentru americani,este ultima zi a săptămînii, de aceea, denumirea de Saturday vine de la Saturn, care mai înseamnă şi zeul timpului!

Reading is Cool

   The reason for choosing such a vast and complex subject as reading , was the desire to be in touch with both the old literature, and the new books that thrill the young readers of today. I wanted to make a bridge between the literature enjoyed by the mature readers and the old stories reinvented for the young public always in search for something new. I would like to to help students to know more because they usually have just fractions of information that they  do not master properly.  We are Romanians , the offsprings of Dracula, or not ?                                                              
   The topic was not chosen by accident, not by chance. Dracula, Bram Stoker’s novel, is one of the most famous novels of all time. A novel that brought an undesirable attention upon the Romanian space and upon one of the most enigmatic historical figures that has ever lived, Vlad the Impeller. A famous historical figure, a respected one, was transformed by the imagination of a writer into the monster that haunts the nightmares of a worldwide population.                         
      Another very important reason was the realization I came to, in my many years of teaching high school children that after a certain age, their interest in reading came to a halt, maybe even stopping altogether. And this decline in reading and general literacy is, by far and away, the most disturbing trend I have noticed during my many years as a classroom teacher. Indeed, this generation of school children may be the first in our history to actually read less than their parents!               
       The long-term implications for such a trend are truly scary. Students who demonstrate poor reading habits are less likely to be informed citizens and productive members of society. Our nation's economic productivity and political viability are both likely to suffer if this trend continues - and there is every indication that it will. In other words, reading is vital to our nation's security and our future as a free people!
      With these thoughts in mind, I asked my students this week to think about their own reading habits and then, as a warm-up activity, write about the possible reasons why kids do not read. Their answers were quite illuminating and generally consistent with other more what we know and those surveys that    have been done on kids and reading. 
   The majority of students in today’s world complain that they do not have time to read because they have something better to do. The reading declined and literacy seems to be at its lowest point ever. It is a trend that worries us teachers, the vast decline of reading in school and outside the curriculum imposed by the schooling system. Every generation reads less and less than the previous one, elder brothers read more than the younger ones. There are long term implications that are really scary for the keen observer. We have to face the fact that students that demonstrate poor reading are more likely to face social failure and are less informed citizens. Romania’s e economic productivity and political viability are in danger and they are likely to suffer from such dangerous trend and the social reality proves that nothing is going to change.                         
   Other students cited the impact of new technologies such as the internet and video games. "Kids don't read because they would rather spend their time playing video games or hanging out with their friends," one student wrote. Another student explained, "Kids don't read today because they have TV and computers and video games instead. I don't think you can really do anything to help.
    Significantly, many students said that the books they have been assigned to read in school have actually diminished their interest in reading. One student said that she does not read because "English class has butchered the fun in reading." Another student agreed. "Honestly some of the books we read in English are so lame. I understand they're classics, but give us something we can relate to and we'll read it."
    Some students pointed to the role of parents in encouraging reading at home. "It's up to the parents to push their children to read," wrote one student. Another said much the same thing. "Kids don't read because their parents don't make them. If parents were more involved with them, they would get used to reading all the time."
     Still others cited the "coolness factor" as the reason why students don't read. "They think it makes them nerds," said one girl. Another student wrote, "Someone put in their minds when they were little that reading was not cool and boring."
    Some students pointed out that popular series novels such as Twilight and Harry Potter can help interest kids in reading. "I used to absolutely hate reading," wrote one girl, "but ever since Twilight came out I read every night." But she also admitted that, "I still hate reading books for school because they're so boring."
    Or as one student said, "If we were allowed to pick a series or genre that we enjoy, we would probably read a lot.”
    Having these reasons in mind I thought of literature works that can bring together more cultural aspects that children are interested in: history, literature, foreign languages and film. All teachers would like their pupils to read Shakespeare, but let’s bear in mind that we as teachers must find the common ground with their kids. I was surprised to see pupils that have never read a book in their entire life, reading Twilight. Not just reading it translated, but also in original, looking forward to reading the next volume. I considered it to be a miracle in today’s hi-tech era.
     If you ask any foreigner to tell you something about Romania, the first thing that foreigner you tell you, would be Dracula. I think that as Romanians, the pupils should know a little about this novel or the character the story was inspired by.
     In a world without no cultural boundaries , where globalization is a term that you hear almost daily, I think it is important not to forget your roots , but still be perfectly aware that we live in a global society.
    We hear every day that the children don’t read, so as teachers we should do our best to make them read. As a teacher I have high expectations of myself and wish to achieve every possible impact on students. As defined by Webster, to educate is "to supervise mental or moral growth." But when one gets to the core of the word it is more important to society. Without education, society as a whole would gradually fall apart. My goal in life is to relay knowledge to my students to help them become productive citizens. 

Modern vs. Classic

   For & against modern language teaching

      Language learning always existed in human history and can be traced to the Greek and Roman Eras. In the early stages of language learning theory, the focus was on language learning as an intellectual exercise, the study of classical literature in the target language and the study of grammatical rules and translation exercises. Translation teaches learners about language, but not how to use it. Translation does not help learners develop their communication skills. With the emphasis on communication, there is also the implication that spoken exchanges should be authentic and meaningful; detractors claim that the artificial nature of classroom–based. It focuses on accuracy versus fluency is one of the issues not often considered. The good thing about the communicative approach is that it makes students speak the language even at a beginner level and they are usually enthusiastic about this. One negative aspect that I can see (but I am Romanian and we're obsessed with grammar) is that the study of grammar is somewhat pushed to the side and pupils find it increasingly difficult to be aware of how a language works.
   These days, especially at private schools and language schools, we have great possibilities in what a teacher can do with his or her students, in terms of teaching methods, seating arrangement, visual aids, etc.  With this freedom in teaching, we have as well an enormous number of ideas to use in our classrooms.  It is up to us to choose the best method for our students. 

Famous love letters

    Women are , were and will be marvelous creatures capable of inspiring the most powerful feeling in the realm of human beings : LOVE . They inspired poets, dramatists and writers. Even kings were nothing but  mere slaves in front of the storm that swept their hearts. 
    Some of the most famous letters written by a king, were those written by the infamous Henry the VIII for his object of affection Anne Boleyn. The letters ooze love , but unfortunately  we all know how that love ended. But let's not dwell into  the world of sadness, let´s find the light of these unforgettable love letters. 

 “   My mistress and friend:  I and my heart put ourselves in your hands, begging you to have them suitors for your good favour, and that your affection for them should not grow less through absence.  For it would be a great pity to increase their sorrow since absence does it sufficiently, and more than ever I could have thought possible reminding us of a point in astronomy, which is, that the longer the days are the farther off is the sun, and yet the more fierce.  So it is with our love, for by absence we are parted, yet nevertheless it keeps its fervour, at least on my side, and I hope on yours also:  assuring you that on my side the ennui of absence is already too much for me:  and when I think of the increase of what I must needs suffer it would be well nigh unbearable for me were it not for the firm hope I have and as I cannot be with you in person, I am sending you the nearest possible thing to that, namely, my picture set in a bracelet, with the whole device which you already  know.  Wishing myself in their place when it shall please you.  This by the hand of
Your loyal servant and friend
H. Rex “

 “  Mine own sweetheart, these shall be to advertise you of the great loneliness that I find here since your departing, for I ensure you methinketh the time longer since your departing now last than I was wont to do a whole fortnight:  I think your kindness and my fervents of love causeth it, for otherwise I would not have thought it possible that for so little a while it should have grieved me, but now that I am coming toward you methinketh my pains been half released....  Wishing myself (specially an evening) in my sweetheart's arms, whose pretty dukkys I trust shortly to kiss.  Written with the hand of him that was, is, and shall be yours by his will.


Women fighting for the wind of change


Woman’s Condition in Britain

          “Woman’s Condition in Britain “is an essay that follows the evolution undergone by more than a half of the English population: women. It is not a feminist paper wanting to prove that women were subjected to men, that they didn’t have the same rights nor opportunities as men had, it is a historical study that shows the accession of women.                           
         In the earliest times her status was almost the same as of the slaves and evolved to equal partner. Throughout history, women have always aimed for a recognized place in society. Guided by their own intelligence or expertise women have brought their contribution to all domains in life: science, art, literature.
            The evolution had as main factor the redefinition and consolidation of the woman’s place in the society, as having the same rights, and duties as men. They had to fight to be recognized.                                                                                                               
            It was not an easy battle for women. It took thousands of years, with many victims among women. Even though women have proved that they were capable rules or leaders, they were still denied some rights, like the right to vote. There were many extraordinary queens that led England in troubled times, such as Elisabeth I that had consolidated the work of her father,  changing the face of the English church forever or Victoria during whose reign England became an colonial empire . Women were denied basic rights, to decide her own life, to work, to marry whomever she wanted or to be anything more than a mother and a wife. She couldn’t even   inherit her parents’ wealth.  Certain fields were denied, such as literature and art, many women could publish their works only under a man pseudonym. They were not allowed to make any mistakes, it is relevant the scandal the writer Thomas Hardy had to face when he wanted to call his book Tess of the D’Urbervilles, a Pure Woman. A woman that had sinned was not pure anymore. To be honest the situation changed mostly in the XX-th   when the feminism was a stepping stone in the demands for equal rights. Women wanted equality with their men folk. Women were more skilled than ever, and they worked the same jobs and were active members of the society. Women’s role is changing because women are more educated. The hold key roles in all walks of life and are not limited to the same roles they were given at the dawn of times, child bearers and female companions. They are teachers, managers or researchers. The future of the women can be looked at, more optimistically. Nowadays there seems to be recognition of the vital role of women play in the society and more status is given to them. The engine is education, which is provided to women equally as to men. Excellent progress has been made, and this has played a powerful role for their self-esteem. It demonstrates women’s abilities to gain expertise in the field of their choice. Society is changing and with it the role of women and men. In many fields women have come a long way, from just their roles of as mothers and house makers. They are that and far more. They no longer think that children rearing and home management is their sole duty.